Hebrews (Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm; Modern Hebrew ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim; ISO 259-3 ʕibrim, ʕibriyim) is a term appearing 34 times within 32 verses of the Hebrew Bible. While the term was not an ethnonym, it is mostly taken as synonymous with the Semitic-speaking Israelites, especially in the pre-monarchic period when they were still nomadic, but in some instances it may also be used in a wider sense, referring to the Phoenicians, or to other ancient groups, such as the group known as Shasu of Yhw on the eve of the Bronze Age collapse.

By the Roman Empire, Greek Hebraios could refer to the Jews in general, as Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary puts it “any of the Jewish Nation”[7] and at other times more specifically to the Jews living in Judea. In Early Christianity, the Greek term Ἑβραῖος refers to Jewish Christians as opposed to the Gentile Christians and Judaizers (Acts 6:1 among others). Ἰουδαία is the province where the Temple was located.

Book of Hebrews: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]